The mandible resembled an ape's, while the skull appeared human, and the canine tooth could have belonged to either species.
In 1912 Arthur Smith Woodward, a paleontologist with the Natural History Museum, and Charles Dawson, an amateur antiquarian, reported the discovery of a new species of early human at Piltdown in England which they believed could date back one million years. In 1912, a British amateur archeologist named Charles Dawson wrote to London's Natural History Museum claiming to have discovered the missing evolutionary link between apes and humans in a fossil he had dug up in Piltdown, Sussex.
This was the beginning of the Piltdown Man hoax, one of the most successful and consequential hoaxes in scientific history.
For the most part, their story was accepted in good faith.
However, in 1949 new dating technology arrived that changed scientific opinion on the age of the remains Using fluorine tests, Dr Kenneth Oakley, a geologist at the Natural History Museum, discovered that the Piltdown remains were only 50,000 years old.
This eliminated the possibility of the Piltdown Man being the missing link between humans and apes as at this point in time humans had already developed into their Homo sapiens form.
Following this, biological anthropologist Dr Joseph Weiner and human anatomist Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, both from Oxford University, worked with Dr Oakley to further test the age of the Piltdown findings.Smith Woodward made a reconstruction of the skull fragments, and the archaeologists hypothesised that the find indicated evidence of a human ancestor living 500,000 years ago.They announced their discovery at a Geological Society meeting in 1912.The scientific community celebrated Dawson's discovery as the long-awaited "missing link" between ape and man and the confirmation of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.As the decades passed and new information came to light, however, it became clear that the Piltdown Man was not what he seemed.There were also rudimentary stone tools, a carved slab of bone and fragments of fossils from Pleistocene- or Pliocene-era mammals, De Groote told Live Science.