The period was marked by lengthy wars with the Ottomans and opulent buildings, many of them religious, as the Shia form of Islam was cemented in the country.
Thanks to it, a believer raises himself to a permanent state of superiority over the man he deceives, be he a minister of state or a powerful king: to him who uses ketman, the other is a miserable blind man whom one shuts off from the true path whose existence he does not suspect; while you, tattered and dying of hunger, trembling externally at the feet of duped force, your eyes are filled with light, you walk in brightness before your enemies.
It is an unintelligent being that you make sport of; it is a dangerous beast that you disarm. Milosz immediately saw the application of this to the double life that was being lived by so many writers and intellectuals under Stalin’s imperium.
Hindi, Bengali, Persian, English, German, Spanish, and Greek, all come from the same root, known as Proto-Indo-European (PIE).
In total, 400 languages and dialects originate from PIE.
Nearly four decades since the revolution, the regime of the Ayatollah endures, and Iran remains a powerful force in the region.
For more than a decade, Washington and Tehran were at odds over Iran’s suspected development of nuclear weapons, but the very real possibility of war between the two powers rapidly ebbed away when the moderate President Hassan Mahmoud Rouhani was elected in 2013, replacing the more hardline President Ahmadinejad.German linguist August Schleicher reconstructed its vocabulary back in 1868. So he created a fable called “The Sheep and the Horses.” Over the years, as more information has been unearthed about the Bronze Age cultures who spoke this language, the fable has been updated. Of course, scholars argue over what PIE actually sounded like. Even leaving the existential threat to Israel aside, the mere possession of nukes by Iran would make it the hegemon of the Persian Gulf and all its oil.What’s striking is the power of history and heritage.The junta-for-Allah has turned the Shia rump of Iraq into a vassal state and our president’s “no-boots-on-the-ground” minimalism has led to American airpower serving Iran’s ends against the Islamic State. Through Hezbollah, Tehran dominates Lebanese politics. And our refusal to directly arm the Kurds (as we continue pretending that Iraq can be nursed back to health) drives our only allies amid the Islamic State chaos into the arms of Iran for their own protection.